Blog Posts on Knowledge

Python configuration files made easy: get to know our new open source library

Most complex software applications need some form of configuration, often through a configuration file. The more complicated the app, the more difficult become the choices between offering flexibility and improving usability. Configuration is the solution to get the best of both worlds. However, getting it right takes knowledge, experience and discipline and often requires having made all the usual mistakes yourself and learned from them. Now, our team of developers and data-analysts has published their solution to this problem as an open-source python library: PyConfig. (Published: 19. August 2021 by Tomás, Marie)
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What is aFRR (automatic frequency restoration reserve) and how does it work?

What is aFRR (automatic frequency restoration reserve) and how does it work? Definition The automatic Frequency Restoration Reserve (aFRR), also known as secondary reserve, is a reserve in the power grid that helps to keep the grid frequency stable. To keep the frequency within certain thresholds, the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) activate balancing services like More… (Published: 31. May 2021 by Evelyn Berschauer)
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mFRR (manual Frequency Restoration Reserve)

What is mFRR (manual Frequency Restoration Reserve / R3)? Definition mFRR is the manual Frequency Restoration Reserve that helps to stabilize the frequency of the electricity grid. In most countries the TSO (Transmission System Operator) is responsible for its procurement and activation. The mFRR (also R3 or tertiary reserve) helps to restore the required grid More… (Published: 14. April 2021 by Marie Volkert)
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Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR)

What is Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR)? Definition To ensure the required grid frequency of 50 or 60 Hz (depending on the concerning country) the Transmission System Operators (TSO) of each country need instruments to maintain this reference value. These instruments are the balancing services. Balancing services are reactive short-term means to level out frequency deviations More… (Published: 26. March 2021 by Lotte Lehmbruck)
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How Does Emissions Trading Work?

How Does Emissions Trading Work? Definition The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, also known as ETS or EU-ETS, is an instrument for reducing greenhouse gas emissions at the lowest possible economic cost. Adopted by the European Parliament and the Council of the EU in 2003, it came into force on January 1, 2005. As of More… (Published: 18. December 2020 by Kerstin Eiwen)
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Transmission Code

What is the Transmission Code? Definition The Transmission Code 2007 is a set of rules in which the four transmission system operators define the conditions to access the German electricity grid. It was first drawn up in 1998 by the Association of German Grid Operators (now "Forum Netztechnik/Netzbetrieb" as part of the VDE) in response More… (Published: 12. August 2020 by Marie Volkert)
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Cross-Border Interconnectors

What are Cross-Border Interconnectors? Definition To turn national electricity grids into a large European electricity market, the various national transmission system operators (TSOs) need transit capacity for cross-border electricity trade. These border connection points, also called cross-border interconnectors, enable TSOs at international level to transfer electricity from one national grid to another. Only cross-border interconnectors More… (Published: 23. June 2020 by Marie Volkert)
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What Is Sector Coupling?

What Is Sector Coupling? Definition Sector coupling has become kind of a buzzword in European energy businesses. Most commonly, it means replacing the traditional separation of the energy sectors of electricity, heating and cooling, transport and industrial consumption processes in favor of a holistic approach. Sector coupling aims at decarbonizing the national economy by converting More… (Published: 9. June 2020 by Christian Sperling)
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What is the Electricity Balancing Guideline (EBGL)?

What is the Electricity Balancing Guideline (EBGL)? Definition The Electricity Balancing Guideline (EBGL) was created by the European Commission to establish and regulate the smooth exchange of balancing energy across the internal borders of the European Union. This guideline, which came into force as Regulation 2017/2195, sets the framework for the stabilization of the electricity More… (Published: 2. June 2020 by Christian Sperling)
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Balancing Services

What are Balancing Services? Definition Balancing Services are reactive short-term means to level out frequency deviations in the power grid. Balancing Services (sometimes also called control reserve) is one out of many ancillary services that system operators have to provide a secure power supply. Balancing Services include Balancing Energy and Balancing Capacity . Balancing Energy More… (Published: 20. May 2020 by Marie Volkert)
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